rehabilitation; primary health care; occupational health; mental health; child development; occupational therapy; education; vocational rehabilitation; community-based therapy
Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Administration Instructions of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception 3rd Edition for isiZulu-Speaking Children

Supplementary Files



Introduction:  Visual perceptual skills are vital for developing academic skills and contribute to language development and socio-cultural participation. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception 3rd Edition evaluates visual perceptual skills but is only available in English. IsiZulu is the most spoken language in South Africa (24,4%), with English being the fourth. Therefore, the English version of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception 3rd Edition cannot be described as a universally authentic assessment instrument in this context.

Methodology: This study aimed to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Developmental Test of Visual Perception 3rd Edition administration instructions into isiZulu using a five-stage qualitatively driven multimethod sequential design. Qualitative feedback on the functional, cultural, and conceptual equivalence was obtained at various intervals.

Results: This study demonstrated a methodology for translating and cross-culturally adapting the administration instructions of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception 3rd Edition into isiZulu to advance the authenticity of the assessment within the South African context. The isiZulu version was found to be functionally, culturally and conceptually equivalent.

Conclusions: This research has demonstrated a framework upon which the cross-cultural adaptations of other assessment instruments and other languages in South Africa can be based.


Implications for practice

  • The rigorous methodology demonstrated in this research can be used as a framework to guide other studies in the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of other assessment instruments and into other languages.
  • This study demonstrated that multiple contributors from various backgrounds are necessary to ensure equivalence during the process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation. However, an emphasis is placed on the value of including occupational therapists with clinical experience when translating and cross-culturally adapting assessment instruments intended to be used within the field of occupational therapy.
  • Through the rigorous method used to translate and cross-cultural adapt the DTVP-3, this study enhanced its authenticity as an assessment instrument within the South African context. Having isiZulu administration instructions available could provide equal opportunity to children who may not be as proficient in English as in isiZulu.
  • Once a distribution agreement has been reached with ProEd Inc., the original publisher and licence holder, the isiZulu administration instructions of the DTVP-3 will be made available for use in South Africa with isiZulu-speaking children.
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Copyright (c) 2023 South African Journal of Occupational Therapy


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